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An Area-Efficient Universal Cryptography Processor for Smart Cards

Cryptography circuits for smart cards and portable electronic devices provide user authentication and secure data communication. These circuits should, in general, occupy small chip area, consume low power, handle several cryptography algorithms, and provide acceptable performance. This paper presents, for the first time, a hardware implementation of three standard cryptography algorithms on a universal architecture. The microcoded cryptography processor targets smart card applications and implements both private key and public key algorithms and meets the power and performance specifications and is as small as 2.25 mm2 in 0.18- m 6LM CMOS. A new algorithm is implemented by changing the contents of the memory blocks that are implemented in ferroelectric RAM (FeRAM). Using FeRAM allows nonvolatile storage of the configuration bits, which are changed only when a new algorithm instantiation is required.

Security system must implement both private (symmetric) and public (asymmetric) key algorithms, to accommodate various application requirements. Private key algorithms with high throughput are suitable for data communication, while public key algorithms with much lower throughput are suitable for private key exchange and authentication. Among all available algorithms, data encryption standard (DES), advanced encryption standard (AES), and elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), which are approved by standards organizations , are selected for this application. DES, for past compatibility, and AES, for high security and throughput, are the major candidates for private key algorithms, and ECC is the best candidate for the public key algorithm for its encryption efficiency.


·         DES (Data Encryption Standard)

·         AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)

·         ECC (Elliptic Curve Cryptography)

 The above three algorithms are used to implementing cryptography algorithm. 

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