Visit our new YouTube channel exclusively for Matlab Projects and Electrical Project @,YouTube-Matlab Projects YouTube-Electrical Projects

VLSI IEEE 2018 Projects at Chennai

Looking for VLSI 2018 Projects,Click Here or Contact @ +91 9894220795/+9144 42647783.For more details visit




Watermarking (data hiding) is the process of embedding data into a multimedia element such as image, audio or video. This embedded data can later be extracted from, or detected in, the multimedia for security purposes. A watermarking algorithm consists of the watermark structure, an embedding algorithm, and an extraction, or a detection, algorithm. Watermarks can be embedded in the pixel domain or a transform domain. In multimedia applications, embedded watermarks should be invisible, robust, and have a high capacity. Invisibility refers to the degree of distortion introduced by the watermark and its affect on the viewers or listeners. Robustness is the resistance of an embedded watermark against intentional attacks, and normal A/V processes such as noise, filtering (blurring, sharpening, etc.), resampling, scaling, rotation, cropping, and lossy compression. Capacity is the amount of data that can be represented by an embedded watermark. The approaches used in watermarking still images include least-significant bit encoding, basic M-sequence, transform techniques, and image-adaptive techniques.An important criterion for classifying watermarking schemes isthe type of information needed by the detector:

• Non-blind schemes: Both the original image and the secret key(s) for watermark embedding.
• Semi-blind schemes: The secret key(s) and the watermarkbit sequence.
• Blind schemes: Only the secret key(s).

Typical uses of watermarks include copyright  protection (identification of the origin of content, tracing illegally distributed  copies)  and  disabling  unauthorized  access  to content. Requirements and characteristics for the digital watermarks in these scenarios are different, in general. Identification of the origin of content requires the embedding of a single watermark into the content at the source of distribution. To trace illegal copies, a unique watermark is needed based on the location or identity of the recipient in the multimedia network. In both of these applications, non-blind schemes are appropriate as watermark extraction or detection needs to take place in a special laboratory environment only when there is a dispute regarding the ownership of content. For access control, the watermark should be checked in every authorized consumer device used to receive the content, thus requiring semi-blind or blind schemes. Note that the cost of a watermarking system will depend on the intended use, and may vary considerably. Two widely used image compression standards are JPEG and JPEG2000. The former is based on the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), and the latter the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). 

In recent years, many watermarking schemes have been developed using these popular transforms. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists, requires prior specific permission and/or a fee.In all frequency domain watermarking schemes, there is a conflict between robustness and transparency. If the watermark is embedded in perceptually most significant components, the scheme would be robust to attacks but the watermark may be difficult to hide. On the other hand, if the watermark is embedded in perceptually insignificant components, it would be easier to hide the watermark but the scheme may be least resistant to attacks. In image watermarking, two distinct approaches have been used to represent the watermark. In the first approach, the watermark is generally represented as a sequence of randomly generated real numbers having a normal distribution with zero mean and unity variance. This type of watermark allows the detector to statistically check the presence or absence of the embedded watermark. In the second approach, a picture representing a company logo or other copyright information is embedded in the cover image. The detector actually reconstructs the watermark, and computes its visual quality using an appropriate measure. 


No comments: